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Patents and Utility Models


Patents, utility models, according Law No. 82 for the year 2002 Promulgating

the Law Protection of intellectual property rights Rules and Regulations Executive


Regulatory Laws:

Law No. 82 of 2002 had been issued promulgating law of protection of intellectual property rights and its executive regulation issued by the prime Minister decree No. 1366 of 2003, issuing Executive Regulation of Books One, Two and Four and decree No. 2202 of 2006 amending some Provisions of the executive Regulation of the third book of law of protection of intellectual property rights, which abolished the Law No. 57 of 1939 on Trademarks , Law No. 132 of 1949 on Patents and Industrial Designs as well as Law No. 354 of 1954 on copyright protection.

Firstly: Patents

Nature of a patent According to the Egyptian law:

Patent is an instrument issued by the State to the inventor that his invention meets the necessary conditions for granting a protection as a patent Which can protect the invention with protection conferred by law.

Protection conferred by law on patents includes the owner’s right to be accounted alone for using the invention and exploit it financially. And thus enable the inventor to reap profits from such exploitation of the invention in exchange for uncovering the mystery of the invention upon the community.  

This exclusive right Conferred on the content of the patent prevent others from using the invention or exploit it. And then the patent holder has the right to prevent third parties from manufacturing items subject of the patent, sell or offer for sale or import them in relation to the product of the patent and to prevent third parties also from using the protected method of production related to the patented method of production.

Requirements for patentability in accordance with Egyptian law:

A patent shall be granted, in accordance with the provisions of this Law, to any industrially applicable invention, which is new, involves an inventive step, whether connected with new industrial products, new industrial processes, or a new application of known industrial processes.

The patent is also granted, independently, for any modification, improvement or addition to a previously patented invention, which meets the criteria of being new, inventive and industrially applicable, as stated in the preceding paragraph; in which case the patent shall be granted, under the provisions of this Law, to the owner of the modification, improvement or addition.

Required Conditions of an applicant for a patent:

An invention shall not be considered wholly or partly new:

According to the provisions of the preceding Article, disclosure shall not include displaying the invention in national or international exhibitions within the six months before the date on which the application was filed.

The Regulations shall specify the conditions and the procedures for the disclosure of a patent.

Cases in which a patent is not granted, according to Egyptian law:

  1. Inventions whose exploitation is likely to be contrary to public order or morality, or prejudicial to the environment, human, animal or plant life and health.                  
  2. Discoveries, scientific theories, mathematical methods, programs and schemes.                                                                                                                                                
  3. Diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for humans and animals.                                                                                                                                                                 
  4. Plants and animals, regardless of their rarity or peculiarity, and essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals, other than microorganisms, non-biological and microbiological processes for the production of plants or animals.                                                                                                          
  5. Organs, tissues, live cells, natural biological substances, nuclear acid and genome.

International conventions that Egypt acceded for the protection of intellectual property rights:

Necessary documents for patentability within the Arab Republic of Egypt:

  1. A fully detailed description, in English, of the invention, including a statement on prior art and shortcomings therein, the novel element in the invention and the best way known by the inventor, to enable a person of expertise to execute it, showing also, in a precise and clear manner, the new elements for which protection is sought.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  2. An abstract describing the invention in the Arabic and English languages.                                                                                                                                                                     
  3. A copy of drawings with full illustrative signs in English Language.                                                                                                                                                                                 
  4. Document of precedence in case of being required.                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  5. An official extract of the Commercial Register (For Egyptian companies), or an official extract of the constitution act (for foreign companies) legalized up to the Egyptian Consulate.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  6. Notarized power of attorney (for Egyptian companies) or a power of attorney legalized up to the Egyptian Consulate (for foreign companies)

Documents shall be submitted accompanied with the application form within four months from the date of submission of application, or the application will be accorded as none.

Procedures for obtaining a patent for Invention:

The firm provides consulting and work Research before conducting the procedures of filing an application for a patent

Firstly: stage of submission of the application for Patent:

  1.  A statement on prior art.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  2. Shortcomings of the prior art.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
  3. The novel element in the invention / Utility model.                                                                                                                                                                                                            
  4. A full detailed description of the invention / utility model.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  5. The method of exploitation of the invention / utility model.                                                                                                                                                                                             
  6. The new elements to be protected of the invention / utility model.                                                                                                                                                                                      
  7. The new elements for which protection is sought regarding the invention / utility model.                                                                                                                                                     
  8. A Statement of applications for registration filed abroad for the same invention / utility model.

Secondly: stage of examination of an application for a patent:

An application for a patent shall contain the following according to the law and its executive regulation, namely:

  1. The invention is new (novelty).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
  2. The invention shall contain an inventive step.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
  3. The invention shall be subject to industrial application

After Expiration of one year from the filing date of the application, a formal decision (examination result) shall be issued to accept or reject the application for a patent

In case of rejection:

The firm shall file a petition against the decision of the Patent Officewithin thirty days from the date of notification of the rejection decision.

In case of acceptance:

The firm shall pay the Publication fees of patents and Utility Models in order to be published at patents and Utility Models official gazette, and then our firm shall provide you with a copy of that publication.

During period of Publicity, any third party who is concerned in objection of acceptance that patent or utility model or its registration, has the right to oppose such decision of acceptance using the model established to that effect or Contents thereofand our firm shall take all necessary procedures to protect our client’s right to protect the invention as a patent.

Submission of application for a patent in accordance with its precedence of submission outside the Arab Republic of Egypt:

Article 38 of Law No. 82 of 2002 stipulates the following:

If a patent application is filed in a country or by an entity member of the World Trade Organization or a country that applies reciprocity to Egypt, the applicant or the successor of his rights may, during the first year following the filing date of the application, file a similar application with the Patent Office in Egypt for the same subject matter and in conformity with terms and conditions provided for in this Law and its Regulations. In this case, for the purpose of determining precedence, the date of the first application in the foreign country shall prevail.

Duration of protection for patents in the Arab Republic of Egypt:

The protection period a patent shall be 20 years as of the date of filing the application in Egypt.

Patent holder's obligation to exploit the invention:

Egyptian legislator obliged the patent holder to exploit the invention parallel to numbers of comparative legislations.

It’s aiming to cover these products in the market with protection conferred by law to meet the country's needs, and the legislator did not oblige the patent holder to exploit the invention by himself, but it is permitted to license others to exploit the invention and provide the product in the market.

 If the patent holder violated his obligation to exploit the invention, the administration may grant non-voluntary licenses for the exploitation of an invention under conditions, prescribed by law.

Article 31 of the TRIPS Agreement stipulates restrictive conditions for granting non-voluntary licenses, and imposed these conditions on Member States of the World Trade Organization to consider them during granting non-voluntary licenses.

Protection of invention:

Protection of Patents in accordance with Egyptian law is divided into two sections:

First, civil protection:

Civil protection which is based on civil protection, conferred upon patents according to the civil law, which entitles the patent holder the right to claim compensation if there is any violation of rights of his patent, through filing a lawsuit of unfair competition.

The patent holder shall prove the following aspects in order to accept the lawsuit:

  1. The Corresponding product had been obtained by the direct use of the patented method.                                                                                                                                      
  2. The patent holder had made reasonable efforts to reveal the method, which used in the production

Second, Criminal protection:

Criminal protection conferred to patents is based on Article (32) of Law number 82 / 2002 of the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights which includes the imitation crimes, or the sale, offer for sale or circulation, importation or possession with the intention to trade, or the unlawful use of indications that may lead to believe that such a party has obtained a patent for an invention.

Conservatory Procedures to the patent holder:

According the provisions of Article (33) of Egyptian law:

The holder of a patent or a utility model may request the president of the competent court, as may be the case, to order conservatory measures against products or goods that are claimed to imitate a patented product, according to the detailed description established in the patent or utility model document. The necessary conservatory measures shall be ordered to preserve such products and goods in their state.

The aforementioned order may be issued before instituting the proceedings. Such order shall lapse if the proceedings are not instituted within 8 days from the date of the injunction.

Under article (35) of the Act:

The president of the competent court dealing with the merits of the case may, at the request of any interested party and on petition, order one or more of the appropriate conservatory measures to ensure the payment of the decided fines or damages. He may also order destruction of the objects in question, where necessary.

under article (42) of the Act:

The Minister of Justice, in agreement with the competent minister, shall determine the persons empowered with judicial authority to enforce the provisions contained in this Book.

Secondly, utility models:

Nature of utility Models according to the Egyptian law:

A utility model patent shall be granted, under this Law for any new technical addition in the structure or composition of devices, tools, equipment or their components, or products, processes or means of manufacturing the above, and the like that is in current use.

The applicant may convert his application into a patent application, and the patent applicant may also convert his application to a utility model application.

In both cases the date of the original application shall prevail.

The Patent Office may, spontaneously, convert the application for a utility model to an application for a patent, when the relevant requirements are met.

The legal period of time for protection of Utility Models:

The protection period of a utility model shall be for a non-renewable period of seven years starting from the filing date of the application for the utility model with the Patent Office in Egypt.

Penalties stipulated by the Egyptian law in case of violation of any patent or Utility Model:

Article (32) of Law number 82 / 2002 of the Protection of intellectual Property Rights stipulates the following:

Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 10, shall be subject to a fine of not less than 20,000 pounds and not more than 100,000 pounds any party who undertakes:

  1. The imitation, for commercialization purposes, of the subject matter of an invention or a utility model for which a patent has been granted in accordance with the provisions of this Law;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  2. The sale, offer for sale or circulation, importation or possession with the intention to trade, of products known to that party as imitations, where the patent for the invention or the utility model for such products is granted and valid in Egypt;                                                                                                                                                              
  3. The unlawful use, on products, advertisements, trademarks, packaging or others, of indications that may lead to believe that such a party has obtained a patent for an invention or a utility model.

Repetition of the offense shall be punishable by imprisonment for a period of no more than two years and by a fine of not less than 40,000 pounds and not more than 200,000 pounds.

In all cases, the court shall order the seizure of the infringing imitated products and the implements used in the imitation. The conviction decision shall be published in one or more daily newspapers, at the expense of the convicted party.